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a) Investigator initiated, interventional radiology study at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA, equipped with Philips image guided therapy system with ClarityIQ technology and comparable Siemens Artis Q image guided therapy systems. Phantom study investigated differences in system-reported radiation dose estimates, cumulative air kerma (CAK) and kerma area product (KAP), for 4,381 clinical procedures. In clinical study, two blinded interventional radiologists reviewed image quality for Philips and Siemens systems with same patients, same procedures and same physicians. Subset analysis with 40 patients undergoing repeat embolization of the same lobe of the liver, performed by the same physician.
b) In 37 individual comparative studies, Philips ClarityIQ was associated with reductions in patient radiation exposure.1-37
c) Relationship between radiation exposure and risk of complications, long-term health risk, procedure time and patient characteristics, procedure complexity, as reported in medical guidelines.38
d) The results of the application of dose reduction techniques will vary depending on the clinical task, patient size, anatomical location and clinical practice. The interventional radiologist assisted by a physicist as necessary has to determine the appropriate settings for each specific clinical task.